Dr. Yoav Bashan, Dr. Luz de Bashan,
Dr. Blanca Estela Romero Lopez
and M. Sc. Juan-Pablo Hernandez

Microalge-bacteria interaction
(Basic studies)

Version January 2016

Goal: Develop basic research on eukaryote-prokaryote interactions using a unique combinations of microalgae and microalgae growth-promoting bacteria.

For More PDF files of earlier papers go to: Environmental Microbiology Website.

External Collaborators

beads, microalgae, bacteria, azospirillum, chlorella
The history of how the microalgae-plant growth promoting bacteria model
was born
click on the imagen

nanosims chlorella azospirillum nanosims chlorella azospirillum

Cell-cell interaction of the microalgae Chlorella and the bacterium Azospirillum. A. Scanning Electron Microscopy. B. Showing Carbon enrichment of the same interaction by NanoSIMS


Transmission electron microscopy of the plant growth-promoting
bacterium Azospirillum brasilense (Az) sharing the
same cavity (c) within alginate beads (Al) with the microalga
Chlorella vulgaris (ch). This unique preparation is
used for wastewater treatment.


Microalgae used in the nutrient removal from wastewaters.


Microalgae and the bacterium
A. brasilense
coimmobilized in alginate beads.


The microalgae and bacteria
coimmobilized in alginate
beads are cultivated
in semicontinuos
systems in a fermentor.

Most relevant publications in recent years:

  • de-Bashan, L. E., Hernandez, J. P., and Bashan, Y. 2015 Interaction of Azospirillum spp. with Microalgae: A Basic Eukaryotic–Prokaryotic Model and Its Biotechnological Applications. In: Handbook for Azospirillum (pp. 367-388). Springer International Publishing

  • Meza, B., de-Bashan, L.E., and Bashan, Y. 2015. Involvement of indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense in accumulating intracellular ammonium in Chlorella vulgaris. Research in Microbiology 166: 72-83

  • Meza, B., de-Bashan, L. E., Hernandez, J. P., and Bashan, Y. 2015 Accumulation of intra-cellular polyphosphate in Chlorella vulgaris cells is related to indole-3-acetic acid produced by Azospirillum brasilense. Research in Microbiology 166: 399-407

  • Leyva, L.A., Bashan Y., and de-Bashan, L.E. 2015. Activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase is not directly linked to accumulation of lipids when Chlorella vulgaris is co-immobilised with Azospirillum brasilense in alginate under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Annals of Microbiology 65: 339-349

  • Leyva, L.A., Bashan Y., Mendoza, A., and de-Bashan, L.E. 2014. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense. Naturwissenschaften 101:819–830

  • Choix, F.J., Bashan, Y., Mendoza, A., and de-Bashan, L.E. 2014. Enhanced activity of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase and formation of starch induced by Azospirillum brasilense in Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of Biotechnology 177: 22-34

  • Leyva, L.A., Bashan Y., and de-Bashan, L.E. 2014. Activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase is not directly linked to accumulation of lipids when Chlorella vulgaris is co-immobilised with Azospirillum brasilense in alginate under autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Annals of Microbiology (in press) DOI 10.1007/s 13213-014-0866-3

  • Lopez, B.R., Bashan, Y., Trejo, A., and de-Bashan, L.E. 2013. Amendment of degraded desert soil with wastewater debris containing immobilized Chlorella sorokiniana and Azospirillum brasilense significantly modifies soil bacterial community structure, diversity, and richness. Biology and Fertility of Soils 49: 1053-1063

  • Choix, F. J., de-Bashan, L.E. and Bashan, Y. 2012 Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: I. Autotrophic conditions. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 51: 294–299

  • Choix, F. J., de-Bashan, L.E. and Bashan, Y. 2012 Enhanced accumulation of starch and total carbohydrates in alginate-immobilized Chlorella spp. induced by Azospirillum brasilense: II. Heterotrophic conditions. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 51: 300–309

  • Trejo, A., de-Bashan, L. E., Hartmann, A., Hernandez, J.P., Rothballer, M., Schmid, M. and Bashan, Y. 2012. Recycling waste debris of immobilized microalgae and plant growth-promoting bacteria from wastewater treatment as a resource to improve fertility of eroded desert soil. Environmental and Experimental Botany 75 : 65-73

  • Covarrubias, S.A., de-Bashan, L.E., Moreno, M., and Bashan, Y. 2012. Alginate beads provide a beneficial physical barrier against native microorganisms in wastewater treated with immobilized bacteria and microalgae. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 93: 2669-2680
    The definitive version is available electronically on SpringerLink: http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/s00253-011-3585-8

  • Perez-Garcia, O., Escalante, F.M.E., de-Bashan L.E., and Bashan, Y. 2011. Heterotrophic cultures of microalgae: Metabolism and potential products. Water Research 45: 11-36. The definitive version is available at: http://www.elsevier.com

  • de-Bashan, L.E., Schmid, M., Rothballer, M., Hartmann, A., and Bashan Y., 2011. Cell-cell interaction in the eukaryote-prokaryote model using the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense immobilized in polymer beads. Journal of Phycology 47:1350-1359

  • Hernandez, J.-P., de-Bashana,L.E., Rodriguez, D. J., Rodriguez, Y. and Bashan, Y. 2009 Growth promotion of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris by the nitrogen-fixing, plant growth-promoting bacterium Bacillus pumilus from arid zone soils. European Journal of Soil Biology 45: 88–93 Original version is available at: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ejsobi

  • de-Bashan, L.E., and Bashan Y. 2008. Joint immobilization of plant growth-promoting bacteria and green microalgae in alginate beads as an experimental model for studying plant-bacterium interactions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74: 6797–6802.

  • de-Bashan, L.E., Antoun, H., and Bashan Y. 2008. Involvement of indole-3-acetic-acid produced by the growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum spp. in promoting growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Journal of Phycology 44: 938–947.

  • de-Bashan, L.E., Magallon, P., Antoun, H., and Bashan Y. 2008. Role of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase in Chlorella vulgaris during assimilation of ammonium when jointly immobilized with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense. Journal of Phycology 44: 1188–1196.

  • de-Bashan, L.E., Antoun H., and Bashan, Y. 2005. Cultivation factors and population size control uptake of nitrogen by the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris when interacting with the microalgae growth-promoting baterium Azospirillum brasilense. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 54: 197-203

  • de-Bashan L.E., Hernandez J.-P., Morey, T., and Bashan, Y. 2004. Microalgae growth-promoting bacteria as "helpers" for microalgae: a novel approach for removing ammonium and phosphorus for municipal wastewater. Water Research 38:466-474.
  • de-Bashan, L. E. and Bashan, Y. 2003. Bacterias promotoras de crecimiento de microalgas: una nueva aproximación en el tratamiento de aguas residuales (Microalgae growth-proomoting bacteria: a novel approach in wastewater treatment). Revista Colombiana de Biotecnología 5: 85-90.

  • de-Bashan, L.E., Bashan, Y., Moreno, M., Lebsky, V.K., and Bustillos,J.J. 2002. Increased pigment and lipid content, lipid variety, and cell and population size of the microalgae Chlorella spp. when co-immobilized in alginate beads with the microalgae-growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense . Canadian Journal of Microbiology 48: 514-521.
  • Lebsky, V.K., Gonzalez-Bashan, L.E., and Bashan, Y. 2001. Ultrastructure of coimmobilization of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense and with its natural associative bacterium Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum in alginate beads. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 47 : 1-8.
  • Image of Confocal Laser Microscopy of clusters of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense after interaction and dissolving the alginates beads where both were initially immobilized. Arrows marking red spots indicating the bacteria. The microalgae (larger circles) have different fluorescent colors.

    Image of Confocal Laser Microscopy of clusters of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris with the microalgae growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense after interaction and dissolving the alginates beads where both were initially immobilized. Arrows marking small yellow spots indicating the bacteria. The microalgae (larger circles) have different fluorescent colors.




    Related pages:

  • Device for producing large-sized polymer beads

  • A method for automated fast production of large-sized polymer beads (2–4 mm)



    Personal page of Yoav Bashan       Personal Page of Luz Gonzalez de Bashan

    Personal Page of Blanca Estela Romero López       Personal Page of Juan Pablo Hernandez

    Comments about this page: Juan Pablo Hernandez

    Back to Home Section     Environmental Microbiology Gruop